Career Cluster: Health Science

Course Description: Introduction to Health Science is a foundational course for all Health Science Programs of Study. This course encourages awareness of career possibilities in healthcare and informs students of educational opportunities available in health science programs. Instruction also includes beginning anatomy and physiology, medical terminology, employability skills, communication skills, customer service skills, cultural awareness, disease and disorders with a focus on homeostatic imbalances, and technology skills necessary in the healthcare industry.

Certifications: American Heart Association Community CPR and First Aid, Precision Exams Technical Skills Attainment

Test Alignment: Precision Exams Introduction to Health Science – Colorado

Standards Alignment:

NCHSE, National Health Science Standards

www.healthscienceconsortium.org

The following alignments are contained in the document “Introduction to Health Science Standard Alignment.”

HOSA, HOSA – Future Health Professionals

www.hosa.org

CSS, Colorado State Standards

PWR, Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness

HOSA-event-1

HOSA Advisor

Standard I – Students will explore the fundamental aspects of healthcare
ObjectivesEvidence OutcomesNCHSE Standard Alignment
1- Compare and contrast the history of medicine with current trends.Students can:
a- Create a historical timeline.
b- Identity current trends in healthcare.
-- none --
2- Summarize professional standards and characteristics of healthcare workers.Students can:
a- Demonstrate proper hygiene of a healthcare worker.
b- Describe proper dress of a healthcare worker.
c- Discuss proper behavior in a healthcare setting (i.e., ethical, honesty, empathy, dependability, life-long learner, and teamwork).
NCHSE: 4.11, 4.12, 6.22
3- Discuss desirable attitudes and behaviors when providing healthcare to patients.Students can:
a- Describe how cultural differences impact the delivery of healthcare.
b- Describe the importance of culturally sensitive care (i.e., gender, race, religion, socioeconomic status, etc.).
c- Evaluate Interpersonal Communication skills that are necessary for all healthcare workers (verbal and nonverbal communication, communication barriers, subjective and objective information, sender-receiver feedback model, speaking and active listening skills, modified communication skills).
d- Apply customer service principles in the healthcare setting (telephone skills, patience, honesty, confidence, work under pressure, positive language, going the extra mile, learn from mistakes, be a leader, time management, etc.).
e- Understand roles and responsibilities of team members.
f- Recognize characteristics of effective teams.
g- Differentiate creative methods for building positive team relationships.
h- Analyze attributes and attitudes of an effective leader.
i- Apply effective techniques for managing team conflict.
NCHSE: 4.11, 6.21, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 8.11, 8.12, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23
4- Explore careers and technology used in healthcare career clusters.
A. Diagnostic
B. Therapeutic
C. Health Informatics
D. Support Services
E. Biotechnology Research and Development
Students can:
a- Assess career options and the preparation necessary for employment in the healthcare industry, academic requirements for professional advancement (including the differences between accredited and non-accredited programs) i.e., certification, licensure, registration with DORA, continuing education, and advanced degrees) from a variety of sources.
b- Describe the impact of health services on the economy.
c- Plan and prepare an oral presentation using HOSA guidelines for Clinical Specialty, Health Career Display, or Medical Photography.
NCHSE: 4.31, 4.32
5- Identify how math is used in the medical field.Students can:
a- Demonstrate use of the 24-hour clock/military time.
b- Demonstrate competency in basic math skills as they relate to healthcare (i.e., averages, rations, fractions, percentages, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division).
c- Demonstrate the ability to convert units of height, weight, and temperature.
d- Demonstrate the ability to use the metric system.
e- Demonstrate the ability to analyze diagrams, charts, graphs, and tables to interpret healthcare results.
NCHSE: 1.31, 1.32, 1.33
6- Demonstrate American Heart Association Community First Aid, CPR skills and safety practices.


Note: American Heart Association Community First Aid and CPR is the lowest level of recommended certification for this course. Advanced First Aid and CPR certification may replace the American Heart Association Community First Aid and CPR certification.
Students can:
a- Demonstrate American Heart Association Community First Aid and CPR.
b- Explain principles of infection control and assess methods of controlling the spread and growth of microorganisms and blood borne pathogens.
c. Demonstrate the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
NCHSE: 7.11, 7.12, 7.21, 7.41, 7.42, 10.12,
Standard II. Students will explore fundamental positions and terminology in regards to the human body.
ObjectivesEvidence OutcomesNCHSE Standard Alignment
1- Describe anatomical position and the role it plays in human anatomy.Students can:
a- Identify the steps required to be in anatomical position (i.e., standing erect, face forward, arms at the side, palms forward).
b- Demonstrate anatomical position.
NCHSE: 2.2
2- Compare and contrast the body planes.Students can:
a- Identify and give examples of the body planes in context (i.e., sagittal, mid-sagittal, coronal/frontal, transverse/horizontal).
b- Explain the necessity of using correct terminology when communicating to others about body planes.
NCHSE: 1.12
3- Identify directional terms.Students can:
a- Identify and give examples of the directional terms in context (i.e., superior, inferior, anterior/ventral, posterior/dorsal, medial, lateral, proximal, distal, superficial, deep).
b- Explain the necessity of using correct terminology when communicating to others about directional terms.
NCHSE: 1.12
4- Identify body cavities.Students can:
a- Identify and give examples of the body cavities in context (i.e., dorsal, cranial, spinal, thoracic, abdominopelvic, abdominal, pelvic).
b- Explain the necessity of using correct terminology when communicating to others about body cavities.
NCHSE: 1.12
5- Investigate the process of homeostasis.Students can:
a- Investigate biological processes that maintain homeostasis.
b- Investigate chemical processes that maintain homeostasis.
-- none --
6- Apply basic medical terminology.Students can:
a- Define prefixes, suffixes, and word roots.
b- Define medical abbreviations and symbols.
c- Write a case study using basic medical prefixes, suffixes, word roots, abbreviations, and symbols.
NCHSE: 2.21, 2.22
Standard III. Students will explore the basics of human anatomy and physiology.
ObjectivesEvidence OutcomesNCHSE Standard Alignment
1- Identify the basic functions, structures, and diseases of the skeletal system.Students can:
a- Describe how the skeletal system provides structure and support.
b- Describe how the skeletal system provides means for muscle attachment and movement.
c- Describe how the skeletal system stores minerals.
d- Describe hematopoiesis and where it occurs.
e- Identify bones of the skeletal system (cranium, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges (fingers), pelvis, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges (toes)).
f- Describe articulation and identify the locations of joints (sutures/cranium, hinge/knee, ball-and-socket/ hip, etc.).
g- Describe the diseases and disorders associated with the skeletal system (fractures, dislocations, sprains, arthritis).
NCHSE: 1.11, 1.13, 1.21
2- Describe the basic functions, structures, and diseases of the muscular system.Students can:
a- Compare and contrast the three types of muscle (cardiac, smooth, and skeletal).
b- Identify the four functions of muscle tissue (attaches to bones to provide voluntary movement, produce heat and energy for the body, help maintain posture by holding the body erect, and protects internal organs).
properties/characteristics of muscles (excitability, contractibility, extensibility, and elasticity).
d- Identify the function and location of muscles (biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, deltoid, diaphragm, petoralis major, latissimus dorsi, rectus abdominus, gluteus maximus, hamstrings, quadriceps, and gastrocnemius).
e- Describe the diseases and disorders associated with the muscular system (muscular dystrophy, strain, muscle spasm).
NCHSE: 1.11, 1.13, 1.21
3- Describe the basic functions, structures, and diseases of the integumentary system.Students can:
a- Identify how skin protects against infection.
b- Explain how the skin produces vitamin D.
c- Explain how the skin functions as a sensory organ.
d- Explain how the skin regulates body temperature.
e- Identify how the skin protects against UV light.
f- Describe the layers of the skin (epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous/hypodermis).
g- Describe the appendages of the skin (nails, sweat/sudorfierous glands, oil/sebaceous glands, and hair).
h- Describe the diseases and disorders associated with the integumentary system (acne, fungal infections (athletes foot, ringworm, jock itch), skin cancer (ABCDE’s of skin cancer identification).
NCHSE: 1.11, 1.13, 1.21
4- Describe the basic functions, structures, and diseases of the cardiovascular system.Students can:
a- Identify how the circulatory system transports nutrients and waste.
b- Identify how the circulatory system transports heat.
c- Identify how the circulatory system transports oxygen to body cells and carbon dioxide away from the body.
d- Identify how the circulatory system transports hormones.
e- Identify how the circulatory system transports antibodies.
f- Describe the basic structures and functions of the heart.
g- Diagram the flow of blood through the heart.
h- Compare and contrast the differences between arteries, capillaries, and veins.
i- Identify the components of blood and the function of each component (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma).
j. Describe the diseases and disorders associated with the circulatory system (anemia, heart attack/myocardial infarction, high blood pressure/hypertension, and atherosclerosis).
NCHSE: 1.11, 1.13, 1.21
5- Identify the basic functions, structures, and diseases of the respiratory system.Students can:
a- Describe how the nose warms, moistens, and filters air.
b- Describe how sound production is related to the respiratory system.
c- Describe the process of carbon dioxide-oxygen gas exchange.
d. Describe the structures and functions of the nose and nasal cavity.
e. Identify the location and function of respiratory structures (pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, alveoli).
f- Describe the diseases and disorders associated with the respiratory system (COPD (asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, etc), epistaxis, pneumonia, lung cancer, influenza, sinusitis).
NCHSE: 1.11, 1.13, 1.21
6- Describe the basic functions, structures, and diseases of the immune system.Students can:
a- Identify the basic function of the immune system.
b- Identify the basic structures of the immune system (tonsils, lymph nodes, white blood cells, thymus, spleen).
c. Describe the diseases and disorders associated with the immune system (HIV, AIDS, mononucleosis, tonsillitis).
NCHSE: 1.11, 1.13, 1.21
7- Identify the basic functions, structures, and diseases of the nervous system.Students can:
a- Describe how the sensory nerves detect stimuli (pressure, temperature, taste, smell, light) and send the message in the form of an impulse to the control centers (spinal cord and brain).
b- Describe how the nervous system receives and interprets incoming nerve impulses and determines appropriate responses.
c- Explain how the motor nerves carry out the response of the control center (spinal cord and brain).
d- Describe the structures of the brain and their functions (cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem)
e- Describe the structure and function of the spinal cord.
f- Describe the location and function of cerebrospinal fluid.
g- Describe the location and function of meninges.
h- Describe the structure and function of sensory and motor nerves (cell body, dendrites, axon).
i- Describe the diseases and disorders associated with the nervous system (meningitis, epilepsy, concussion, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis).
NCHSE: 1.11, 1.13, 1.21
8- Identify the basic functions, structures, and diseases of the special senses.Students can:
a- Identify the sense of smell (chemoreceptor).
b- Identify the sense of taste (chemoreceptor).
c- Identify the sense of hearing (mechanoreceptor).
d- Identify the sense of vision (photoreceptor).
e- Identify the sense of touch (mechanoreceptor).
f- Describe the structure and function of the ear (outer ear (auricle, eternal auditory canal), middle ear (tympanic membrane, auditory tube, auditory ossicles), and inner ear (cochlea)).
g- Describe the structure and function of the eye (eyelid, conjunctiva, sclera, cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina).
h- Describe the structure and function of the nose (olfactory receptor).
i- Describe the structure and function of the mouth/tongue (taste buds).