|1- Understand cell division as it relates to emerging technologies related to stem cell research and cancer biology.||Students can:|
a- Understand the various mechanisms that lead to cancer.
b- Compare and contrast different stem cell types (i.e., adult, embryonic and iPS).
c- Identify the potency, benefits, drawbacks, ethical implications, epigenetic patterns, etc., of each type of stem cell.
|2- Identify the structure and functions of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA in detail. ||Students can:|
a- Describe and/or model the structure of DNA.
b- Compare and contrast the structure and function of DNA and RNA.
c- Relate the current understanding of the structure of DNA to technologies used in the biotechnology field i.e., restriction digest and DNA profiling.
d- Describe the steps involved in electrophoresis and perform the technique correctly.
e- Perform a restriction digest and analyze the results with gel electrophoresis.
f- Understand how the chemical structure of DNA allows for fragmentation when using gel electrophoresis.
|3- Describe patterns of genetic inheritance.||Students can:|
a- Apply basic Mendelian inheritance principles when solving genetic problems.
b- Describe the importance of genetic variation (principle of segregation, principle of independent assortment).
c- Use a model organism to demonstrate an understanding of inheritance patterns and/or gene expression.
d- Identify the modes of inheritance of a trait.
e- Identify complex inheritance patterns (i.e., genetic heterogeneity, epistasis, epigenetics, penetrance and expressivity, etc.).
|4- Apply the process of DNA replication to aid in understanding of technology and advancements in the biotechnology field. ||Students can:|
a- Summarize the history of DNA sequencing and identify the basics of current, next generation sequencing efforts.
b- Illustrate the steps of DNA replication in detail and identify the enzymes involved.
c- Identify how the current understanding of DNA replication is used when performing PCR.
d- Use PCR to amplify DNA and analyze the results using electrophoresis.
e- Investigate the concepts of genomics and apply to human, microbial, plant and animal genomes.
f- Construct a project that relates to technology used in DNA replication, i.e., sequencing experiment, bioethics of personal genomics (personalized medicine), virtual lab, video conferencing, DNA Barcoding, etc.
|5- Understand factors that influence gene expression and gene regulation within the cell.||Students can:|
a- Illustrate the steps of protein synthesis/gene expression within the cell.
b- Explain the progression of information from DNA to traits (transcription, translation, splicing, alternate splicing, mRNA modification).
c- Relate genetic diseases to problems with gene expression (i.e., under/over expression, mutations resulting in harmful protein, mutations resulting in non-functional protein, prions, etc.).
d- Understand how the epigenome (epigenetics) influences gene expression and disease.
e- Relate how technology allows for scientists to pinpoint missing or defective genes.
f- Outline the current technologies related to gene expression, i.e., epigenetic therapy, RNAi therapy, gene therapy, CRISPR Technology, Recombinant DNA Technology, etc.
g- Analyze the role of noncoding RNA’s in gene regulation.
|6- Explain how Proteomics allows scientists to identify and characterize all the proteins synthesized in a cell.||Students can:|
a- Illustrate the structure and function of proteins.
b- Identify the types of proteins, their functions, and levels of structure.
c- Compare protein structure to function.
d- Give examples of how physical conditions affect the structure and function of proteins (temperature, pH, cofactors, salts, and minerals).
e- Define enzyme and explain how to measure the activity of an enzyme.
f- Operate current technology used in the biotechnology industry to study proteins (SDS-PAGE, column chromatography, spectrometry, etc.).
g - Identify when to use chromatography, the procedures used, and perform the technique correctly.
h- Identify the equilibrium constant of a solution using spectrophotometry (optional).
|7- Understand the process of genetic engineering and identify the social and ethical implications of technologies used in the field. ||Students can:|
a- Describe the use of cloning vectors in genetic engineering and identify different types of commonly used cloning vectors (i.e., plasmids, stem cells, viruses, etc.).
b- Perform bacterial transformation and analyze results. Identify the importance/role of the various steps throughout the process (i.e., competency, heat and chemical shock, etc.).
c- Identify different methods used to genetically modify an organism (i.e., Recombinant DNA and CRISPR technology).
d- Describe how to quantify the amount of DNA purified (spectrophotometry).
e. Explore the bioethical implications of genetic engineering in the creation of GMOs.
f. Explore the applications of genetic engineering (i.e., food, industry, agriculture, environmental, drugs/pharmaceutical, etc.).