Career Cluster: Health Science

Course Description: Focuses on basic knowledge of body structures and function, and provides a foundation for understanding deviations from normal and disease conditions. This course is designed for individuals interested in health care and is directly applicable to the Practical Nursing Program, Paramedic Program and the Medical Office Technology program.

Certifications: Precision Exams Technical Skills Attainment

Test Alignment: Precision Exams Technical Skills Attainment

Standards Alignment:

NCHSE, National Health Science Standards

http://www.healthscienceconsortium.org/docs/NATIONAL_HEALTH_SCIENCE_STANDARDS_-_May_2015f_(2)_(1).pdf

-HOSA: HOSA – Future Health Professionals

www.hosa.org

CCTC, Common Career Technical Core

CSS, Colorado State Standards

PWR, Postsecondary and Workforce Readiness

skeleton

Standard I – Human Body Organization
ObjectivesEvidence OutcomesState Standard, NCHSE Standard, and HOSA Alignment
1- Identify the six levels of structural organization of the human body.Students can:
a- Distinguish between the levels of structural organization (chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism).
b- Illustrate the interdependency of each level of structural organization.
NCHSE: 1.11, 1.13
2- Identify directional terminology.Students can:
a- Explain directional terms used when referring to the human body (superior/inferior, proximal/distal, medial/lateral, anterior/posterior, superficial/deep).
b- Identify planes used to divide the human body (sagittal, midsagittal, transverse, frontal).
c- Distinguish between the body cavities and the organs located within each cavity (dorsal, cranial, vertebral, ventral, thoracic, pleural, pericardial, mediastinum, abdominopelvic, abdominal, pelvic).
d- Identify the body quadrants and the main organs in each quadrant (right upper quadrant- RUQ, left upper quadrant-LUQ, right lower quadrant-RLQ, left lower quadrant-LLQ).
HOSA: Colorado Anatomy in Clay® Competition
NCHSE: 1.12
3- Discuss the importance of homeostasis in the human body.Students can:
a- Explain what is occurring in the body during a homeostatic imbalance.
b- Identify variables that may cause homeostatic imbalances.
c- Compare and contrast negative and positive feedback mechanisms.
NCHSE: 1.21
Standard II - Human Body Chemistry
ObjectivesEvidence OutcomesState Standard, NCHSE Standard, and HOSA Alignment
1- Examine the basic principles of chemical elements.Students can:
a- Discuss the Periodic Table of Elements and describe its role.
b- Identify the organic elements in the human body and list their basic functions (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen).
c- Compare and contrast organic and inorganic compounds.
d- Identify the function of common electrolytes in the human body (sodium, potassium, chloride).
NCHSE: 1.13
2- Identify the basic components of atoms and describe the characteristics of ions, molecules, compounds, and bonds.Students can:
a- Diagram and discuss the basic components of an atom (nucleus, electron, proton, and neutron).
b- Differentiate between ions, cations and anions.
c- Compare and contrast molecules and compounds.
d- Recognize the characteristics of ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds.
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3- Show the relationship between water, acids, bases, and pH.Students can:
a- Discuss the properties of water and illustrate how it is utilized in the human body.
b- Categorize acidic, basic and neutral solutions and identify pH values of each using the pH scale.
c- Identify the normal pH of common body fluids (blood, intracellular fluid, gastric juice, urine).
NCHSE: 1.13
Standard III - Cell Biology
ObjectivesEvidence OutcomesState Standard, NCHSE Standard, and HOSA Alignment
1- Identify the basic structures and functions of an animal cell.Students can:
a- Explain the structure and function of the cell membrane.
b- Discuss the structure and function of the nucleus including the nuclear membrane.
c- Describe the structure and function of the cytoplasm.
d- Recognize the structure and function of the organelles (centrosome, Golgi body, lysosome, mitochondria, ribosome, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vacuole).
NCHSE: 1.13
2- Describe the cellular transport processes and classify as active or passive.Students can:
a- Discuss selectively permeable membranes and determine factors which influence permeability.
b- Compare and contrast active transport, phagocytosis, and pinocytosis.
c- Compare and contrast diffusion, facilitated diffusion and osmosis.
d- Determine the osmotic effects that occur when a cell is placed in an isotonic, hypotonic, and a hypertonic solution.
NCHSE: 1.13
3- Describe animal cell reproduction. Students can:
a- Examine the process of mitosis.
b- Examine the process of meiosis.

NCHSE: 1.13
Standard IV - Histology
ObjectivesEvidence OutcomesState Standard, NCHSE Standard, and HOSA Alignment
1- Identify the characteristics and functions of the four principle types of tissue.Students can:
a- Describe the structure and function of epithelial tissue.
b- Describe the structure and function of connective tissue.
c- Describe the structure and function of nervous tissue.
d- Describe the structure and function of muscle tissue.
NCHSE: 1.11, 1.13
2- Differentiate between the four basic types of membranes.Students can:
a- Identify the location, structure, and function of cutaneous membranes.
b- Identify the location, structure, and function of serous membranes.
c- Identify the location, structure, and function of mucous membranes.
d- Identify the location, structure, and function of synovial membranes.
NCHSE: 1.13
3- Compare and contrast exocrine and endocrine glands.Students can:
a- Identify and give examples of exocrine glands.
b- Identify and give examples of endocrine glands.
c- Describe the functions and locations of sudorfierous, sebaceous, and ceruminous glands.
NCHSE: 1.13
4- Describe the basic structures, functions, and diseases and disorders of the integumentary system.Students can:
a- Identify the three layers of the skin (epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous) with respect to tissue type, function, and substructures (glands, hair, nails).
b- Estimate the body surface area of an adult using the Rule of Nines.
c- Classify burns based on depth of skin penetration.
d- Describe the diseases and disorders associated with the integumentary system (skin cancer (ABCDE’s of skin cancer identification), herpes, boils, warts, impetigo).
HOSA: Pathophysiology Knowledge Test
NCHSE: 1.21
Standard V - Skeletal System
ObjectivesEvidence OutcomesState Standard, NCHSE Standard, and HOSA Alignment
1- Identify the five functions of the skeletal system.Students can:
a- Discuss how the skeleton gives shape and support to the body.
b- Identify how bones protect internal organs.
c- Describe muscle attachment to bones.
d- Identify where red blood cell formed (hematopoiesis).
e- Discuss the storage of calcium and phosphorous in the bones and the purpose of storing minerals.
NCHSE: 1.13
2- Compare and contrast compact and spongy bone and the location and function of each.Students can:
a- Identify the location and function of compact bone.
b- Describe the location and function of spongy bone.
c- Explain the role of osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in bone growth and ossification and examine where these processes occur in the bone.
NCHSE: 1.13
3- Differentiate the axial and appendicular skeletons. Students can:
a- Identify the bones of the axial skeleton.
b- Identify the bones of the appendicular skeleton.
c- Locate the following skull bones and identify their function: mandible, maxilla, zygomatic, frontal, parietal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid, hyoid, temporal, mastoid process.
d- Illustrate the number, location and function of each of the five groups of vertebrae.
NCHSE: 1.13
4- Describe bone markings, features, location, and names of long, short, flat, and irregular bones of the human body.Students can:
a- Identify the bone markings, features, location, and names of long bones.
b- Identify the bone markings, features, location, and names of short bones.
c- Identify the bone markings, features, location, and names of flat bones.
d- Identify the bone markings, features, location, and names of irregular bones.
NCHSE: 1.13
5- - Identify the types of joints, describe the movement of each, and classify as fibrous, synovial, or cartilaginous.Students can:
a- Describe a ball-and-socket joint, the movement of this joint, and examples of this type of joint.
b- Describe a condyloid joint, the movement of this joint, and examples of this type of joint.
c- Describe a gliding joint, the movement of this joint, and examples of this type of joint.
d- Describe a hinge joint, the movement of this joint, and examples of this type of joint.
e- Describe a pivot joint, the movement of this joint, and examples of this type of joint.
f- Describe a saddle joint, the movement of this joint, and examples of this type of joint.
g- Describe sutures and identify where they are located.
NCHSE: 1.13
6- Compare and contrast tendons and ligaments.Students can:
a- Describe the characteristics of tendons.
b- Describe the characteristics of ligaments.
NCHSE: 1.13
7- Describe the diseases and disorders of the skeletal system and the homeostatic imbalance involved with each.Students can:
a- Explain the disease process of osteoporosis and discuss diagnostic tests, treatment options and long-term prognosis.
b- Explain rheumatoid arthritis and discuss diagnostic tests, treatment options and long-term prognosis.
c- Explain rickets and discuss diagnostic tests, treatment options and long-term prognosis.
d- Explain gout and discuss diagnostic tests, treatment options and long-term prognosis.
HOSA: Pathophysiology Knowledge Test
NCHSE: 1.21
Standard VI - Muscular System
ObjectivesEvidence OutcomesState Standard, NCHSE Standard, and HOSA Alignment
1- Identify the general functions of the muscular system.Students can:
a- Describe how the muscles combine with the skeleton in providing motion and identify the terms related to muscle movement (origin, insertion, prime mover, antagonist, synergist, fixator).
b- Identify how substances move though the body due to contractions of involuntary muscle.
c- Summarize how muscle contractions produce and regulate heat (thermogenesis, shivering).
d- Describe how sensory receptors monitor tension and length of muscle to maintain posture.
HOSA: Colorado Anatomy in Clay® Competition
NCHSE: 1.13
2- Compare and contrast the functional characteristics of muscle tissue.Students can:
a- Illustrate muscle excitability.
b- Describe muscle contractibility.
c- Discuss muscle extensibility.
d- Explain muscle elasticity.
NCHSE: 1.13
3- Compare and contrast the location, microscopic appearance, type of control (voluntary/involuntary), and functions of the three types of muscleStudents can:
a- Identify the location, microscopic appearance, and type of control of striated muscle.
b- Describe the location, microscopic appearance, and type of control of cardiac muscle.
c- Explain the location, microscopic appearance, and type of control of smooth muscle.
NCHSE: 1.13